Gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principle of preserving angular momentum. Mechanical gyroscopes typically comprise a spinning wheel or disc in which the axle is free to assume any orientation. Gyroscopic effect is ability (tendency) of the rotating body to maintain a steady direction of its axis of rotation. The gyroscopes are rotating with respect to the axis of symmetry at high speed.
gyroscope, defined as a spinning disk in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation. When spinning, the orientation of the spin axis is unaffected by the orientation of the body that encloses it. The body or vehicle enclosing the gyroscope can be moved from place to place and the orientation of the spin axis will remain the same. This makes gyroscopes very useful in navigation, especially where magnetic compasses can’t be used, such as in manned and unmanned spacecraft, intercontinental ballistic missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and satellites like the Hubble Space Telescope.
orientation of the aircraft in flight. Spinning Gyroscopes are kept in special cages that keep their orientation independently of the aircraft in space.Gyroscope cages have electrical contacts and sensors that can relay information to the pilot whenever the plane rolls or pitches. This lets the pilot and guidance systems"know" the planes current relative orientation in space.The Mars Rover even has a set of them. They provide the Rover with stability as well as aid with navigation. They also have applications in drone aircraft and helicopters by providing stability and helping with navigation. Despite their simplicity in design, they have become essential pieces of kit for anything from an ocean-going ship to the Space Shuttle and of course Helicopters.
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF GYROSCOPE
When the gyroscope is applied with external torques or rotations about the given axis, the orientation can be measured by a precessi on phenomenon. When an object rotating about an axis is applied with external torque along a direction perpendicular to the rotational axis, the precessi on occurs.
THE RIGHT-HAND RULE
Scientists tend to use what is called the "right-hand rule" to visualize this. To do this, take your right hand and make a right angle. Then you can stretch your fingers out along the radius of the wheel. If you curl the end of your fingers in the direction of the spin your thumb will be pointing in the direction of the angular momentum. Basically, the axle of the wheel will be the direction that the entire spinning wheel "wants" to move in.
APPLICATIONS OF GYROSCOPES
The interesting properties of Gyroscopes have provided Scientists and Engineers with some fascinating applications. Their ability to maintain a particular orientation in space is fantastic for some applications. Slap on some sensors and you've got a recipe or greatness. In modern aircraft, inertial guidance systems make good use of these relatively simple devices. They have a suite of spinning Gyroscopes to monitor and control.