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CIRCUIT - DIY kit for Students

SIMPLE CIRCUIT

A circuit is a complete path around which electricity can flow. It must include a source of electricity, such as a battery. Materials that allow electric current to pass through them easily, called conductors, can be used to link the positive and negative ends of a battery, creating a circuit. In an open or broken circuit, there is a break along the line, and the current stops. In a closed or complete circuit, electric current can flow. When electric current flows, it can be used by electrical appliances, such as light bulbs.

MATERIAL

Base

Lamp

1.5 V Cell

Wire

SERIES CIRCUIT

A series circuit consists of a single pathway through which electricity can flow. All of the parts of a series circuit—power source, wires, and devices—are connected along the same pathway; the devices are connected one after another,with no branches. Current moves through one device, then the next, and so on.

The amount of current is the same at every point in a series circuit. However, the amount of current for each device in a series circuit decreases as more devices are added to the circuit. For example, as you add lights to a series circuit, each light will burn dimmer than it did before. The more

lights added, the less current available to each light. Current is never “used up” in a series circuit, however,regardless of the

number of devices that are added.

If one device in a series circuit burns out or is disconnected, the entire circuit is broken—the flow of current stops and all of the devices stop working. Series circuits are most commonly used in flashlights, holiday lights, and other simple devices.

MATERIAL

Base

Lamp

1.5VCell

Wire

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

A parallel circuit contains multiple pathways, or branches. Each device in a parallel circuit is on a separate branch. The current flowing through a parallel circuit dividesas it reaches each branch. Because only part of the total current flows through each branch,the amount of current is different at different points in a parallel circuit.

The current in each branch of a parallel circuit is separate;therefore, adding branches(and

devices) does not affect the amount of current available for each branch. Each light you add to a parallel circuit will glow as brightly as the others, as long as each new light is added on its own branch.

Because each branch in a parallel circuit is separate from the other branches, a device in one branch can be switched on or off without affecting the others. If one device in a parallel circuit breaks or is disconnected, the devices in the other branches will keep working. Parallel circuits are used in homes, schools, offices—any place where it is important to keep multiple devices working even when one device burns out

MATERIAL

Base

Lamp

1.5VCell

Wire