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# 10 IN 1 TOY SET - DIY kit for Students

## 1. BALLOON BOAT

Fix the balloon on the color side of the cap. Blow the balloon. Hold it properly between your 2 fingers so the air should not go out and fix it on the Boat. Keep the boat in water. Wow! It moves!

Jet action of the air coming out of balloon gives push to the boat to move in water. You may widenthe hole to make it

move faster. This safe and entertaining toy is a very good example of Newton's third law of motion.

## What’s happening?

The air in the balloon is much like pressurized gas in a rocket. When the pressurized air escapes it creates a thrust that

propels your balloon rocketcar forward. This is becauseof one of Newton’s Laws of Motion: For every action, gas escaping from the balloon in one direction, there is an equal and opposite reaction, the balloon moving in the other direction. Now to do more with your experiment, try filling the balloon with more or less air and see how far it travels each time.

## 2.Flick Disk

The flick disk is a great outdoor toy for we all to enjoy and learn a bit more about aerodynamics and energy. Fly the disk on the ground, where there are no trees. You may lose the disk if you try it near trees. Also make it sure that the disk does not hit other persons.

### How to fly?

1. Hold the disk in your right hand. The disk has a notch on its periphery.

2. Hold rubberband in your left arm. Lock its one end into the notch of the disk.

3. Stretch the rubber as much as it can allow you to stretch.

4. Hold the disk in horizontal position before you release it. Now once you are ready, release the disk from your right hand. Make it sure that your grip on rubber band by left hand is still firm or else rubber band will also be released.

5. The disk flies off with great speed. It rotates and glides for a very long distance.

How does it work?

The first action of releasingthe disk is an application of potential energy of stretched rubber band. When we stretch rubber band, the energy is in potential form. It becomes kinetic,the moment we release the disk. The disk flies horizontally, due to its rotation. Rotatingdisk creates an angular moment perpendicular to the horizontal plane. It stabilizes the disk in high speed flight. If released well, it can fly in a straight line. It covers vary long distance due to its thin profile and round edges. Try to give a little angle to the disk while releasing it. Rim of the disk has a airfoildesign. It can take a flight and can also come back to you on completing a circular path.

## 3. SUNDIALCLOCK

a.] Carefully break the sundial disk loose from the printed sheet. Assemble the sundial by pressing the obelisk through the disk from the back.

b.] On a sunny day wait until the clock is at a full hour and place the sundial in the sun. If, for example, It is 12 noon, turn the sundial so that the shadow of the obelisk points directly at the number 12 on the sundial disk. Now the sundial is set, and from now on you can read the time on yoursun dial

### How does it happen?

Because the earth turns around its axis, it appears to us as if the sun turns aroundthe Earth. The shadow cast by the obelisk will therefore wanderon the sundial. It is the

hand of the sundial. But the sundial only works in nice weather and only from morning until night. Also don`t forget that in the spring and summer we have daylightsaving time. In the summerwhen your watch shows 12, the time according to the positionof the sun is only 11 o`clock.

4.WhistlingSpinners:

In the kit, there are two disks with holes. These are the spinners, which produce hissingsound as you spin them rapidly. Let us do this first. Take one disk and make a loop of thread given in the kit while passingthe thread throughtwo small holes in the centre of the disk. The loop should be of optimum length,so take

thread of approximately 100 cm. length. Spin the spinner rapidly as shown in the figure. Once it gets enough spin, it starts producing hissing or whistling sound. You may repeat this experiment with another disk. It will also produce similar sound. Keen observation will reveal that there is some difference in the sound produced by two disks. Let us know the science behindspinners.

How does it happen ?

Let us first know, what is 'Sound'? Sound is a form of energy produced by something vibrating. Or we can say that vibrating energy is converted into sound energy. Sometimeswe can see these vibrations, while most of the times we cannot.If we pluck a tightlyheld elastic band, it shows vibrations, while it producessound. However, when we speak, sound is heard but vibrations are not seen. When we speak, we set air molecules around us vibrating. Air acts as a medium and carries these vibrations or sound waves to our ears. Look at the disks that you are spinning. They have a few holes near their periphery. As we spin them rapidly, air passes through these holes and vibrations are set in. These vibrations produce sound which is audible to human ears. Even when we spin the disks slow, vibrations are created, but sound produced by these vibrations is not audible to human ears. If we notice carefully, the disk with small holes produces sound with higher pitch. You must know that the technique of producing sound by passingair through holesis used in factory sirens.

You will find two identical tubes in kit. out of which, one is to produce a "Tornado" in a bottle. Pick up one, which has One hole in the center. Take two clear and empty soft drink plastic bottles. Ensure that tornado tube can be screwed onto them tightly.You must remove plastic sealing rings from both the bottles, before you fit tornado tube. Fill one bottle with water up to 2/3 level. You may add very small quantity of color if you wish. However, to begin with, it is better to do with clear water.Screw second bottle on the other side of tornado tube. Tighten it fully. The assembly would look like one shown in the figure. Turn the bottles upside down. This will take the filled bottle on the top. Shake the upper bottle, giving swirling motion to the water inside the bottle. Observe carefully, the spinning water creates something in the water that looks like a Tornado! The water will keep coming down into the empty bottle and in the middle of the upper bottle; this tornado effect will be visible. Once upper bottle is empty, you may turn them up-side-down and repeat the actions to see the tornado effect again. It is a Vortex.… The swirling tornado in the bottleis referred to as a vortex, which is a type of motion that causes liquids and gases to travel in spirals around a centre line. During summer days, we often find gusty winds producing miniature tornadoes called dust devils. Such dust devils

have similar shape like a vortex. In rivers, there are similar vortices seen duringflood conditions.

### How does a vortex occur in a bottle?

A vortex is createdwhen rotating liquid falls throughan opening. The liquid is pulled by gravity into the hole. Water from the upper bottle has developed rotating action. As some water enters the hole air from lower bottle rushes to the

upper bottle. Due to rotating action of liquid, there is a centrifugal force acting onit, so the air can come up through the centre more rapidly. Due to this a vortex is developed in the centre,resembling to a tornado.

### Try this ...

You may try many new things with your tornado tube, here are a fewsuggestions. Think and do your own experimentation:

a.] Compare the speed of water flowingfrom upper bottleto lower bottlewith and without shaking the bottles. That means, once water coming down on its own and next time it is coming down in a swirling actionforming a vortex.

b.] Add some plastic shapes, like animals, trees, small house etc. in the bottlebefore forming a tornado. See how are they displaced when tornado action starts. This may remind you of real wild tornadoes which lift dirt, trees, animals and houses into the air by the swirlingvortex.

c.] Fill water in two bottles with 2 separate colors, like yellow and red or red and blue. Quickly connect them to the tornado tube and see which color develops when water comes down and mixes in the waterwith other color.

d.] Try to form tornadoes using other liquids, like, cooking oil, kerosene and evencombination of water and any of theseliquids.

e.] Add some silver or golden glitter in the water before forming a tornado. You may use kerosene. in this experiment mixed with water to improveits performance.

Besides, you may inventyour own tricksand demonstrate more interesting activities with the tornado tube. Never forget that it is fun to find out new thingsrather than just doing what is asked for.

6. FountainTube

Take other tube from the kit which has two small holes in the centre. Also find two long plastic tubes. They have small holes drilled at one end. Insert these tubes into two holes of the fountain tube with their ends with holes going into the tube. Do not insert it up to the holes. Just insert the tubes by 10 mm or so. Take two plastic bottles (soft drink or mineral water) and fill one 3/4 full with clear or coloredwater. Remove cap of the bottles. Also remove plastic sealing rings. Screw the fountain tube with two plastic tubes on to this bottle. Cap other bottle oh the other end of the fountain tube. Just turn the bottles over and a bubbling, spurting fountain will occur at the top of the plastic tube. Turn it over when the upper bottle

is empty and the fountain occursagain. You don'thave to shake the bottles.

How does it happen?

Closely observe what happens.. When the bottles are inverted, gravity pulls the water from the upper bottle down through the lower tube and compresses the air in the lower bottle. When water leaves the upper bottle, a partial vacuum or decrease in the pressure occurs in the upper bottle. Air is then forced from the lower bottle to the upper one through the fountain tube. The long tube which we have inserted, has small holes at one end. This end is at the bottom of the upper bottle. The air that comes up from lower bottle also takes along water from upper bottle coming into tube through small holes resulting into a bubbling fountain. Try following things to demonstrate two actions occurring at once, viz, formationof partial vacuumin upper bottleand compression of air in the lower bottle :

a.) Start the fountain and then unscrew the lower bottle. Lift the fountain as shown. Air rushes from outside through the tube to occupy the empty space (partial vacuum) and takes water with it, resulting into a fountain. That means there was partial vacuum in the upper bottle as discussed earlier.

b.) Cut the base off upper bottle. Close hole of the fountain tube through which water enters into lower bottle with your finger. Fill the upper bottle with water and now remove your finger from the hole. As water starts entering the lower bottle, fountain starts. Here, the vacuum is not created in upper bottle as the bottle is open, but air in the lower bottle is compressed and pushed upward, resulting into a fountain.

## 7. MAGDEBURG HEMISPHERES

Demonstration of air pressure without vacuum pump.

### What is going on?

When the sections hemispheres are pressed against each other, the air in between them will be pushed out. Now there will be partial vacuum in betweenthe spheres. As a result of this the pressure between the sphere is less. Butthe pressure outside the sphere is more. That is force per unit area outside the sphere is more than the forceper unit area inside the sphere. As a result there willbe net inward force. This force brings the sphere together and makes them difficult to separate.

## History :

The Magdeburg hemisphere was designed by German scientist Ottovon Guericke in 1650 to demonstrate the air pump he had invented and the conceptof air pressure. Von Guericke's demonstrationwas performedon 8th May 1654infrontoftheEmperor Ferdinand IIIinRegensburg. Thirty horses in twoteamsof15couldnotseparatethehemispheresuntilthe vacuumwasreleased. In 1656 he repeated the demonstration with 16 homes (2 teams of 8) inhishometownofMagdeburg.Wherehewasmayor.

8.Cartesian diver

Take a 2 liter bottle and fill it with water up to 2/3 level. In the kit, there is a small plasticbottle, with a cap. This is a 'Cartesian diver'. In 2 liter plastic bottle filled with water, gently drop this Cartesian diver upside down. Cap the plastic bottle tightly. You will find that the Cartesian diver will sink a little bit and remain justbelow upper level of the water. Press the bottle gently and notice a miracle. The Cartesian diver dives deep into the water and touches bottom of the bottle. As you releasethe bottle, it bounces back to its original position.You can repeatthis fun exercisetill you

understand science behind this miracle.

### How does it happen?

The Cartesian diver has a cap with a central tube. Initially, the diver is in the top layer of water. The diver is filled with air. We know that air also has some weight. Being it is lighter than water, the diver rests in the top layer. When we press the bottle, air in the plastic bottle is compressed. It exerts pressure on water in thebottle. Water enters the diver making the diver heavier. So the diver sinks. As you release pressure from the plastic bottle, the water from diver comes out and it becomeslighter. So it bounces back to its original position. It is a classic experiment in properties of air. It is namedafter the scientist, Rene De-cartes (1596-1650). We learn that air has weight, it exerts pressure and it can be compressed. This diver is also useful in understanding conceptof buoyancy and even Archimedes principle.

## 9. Whirligig (Propeller)

You must have noticed a question mark shape in the kit, and perhapspuzzled with the kind of toy it is. Let us play with it. The question mark has a circular head and a long tail. Just try and see if it stands on your fingertip if you keep end of the long side of question mark on your finger? Can it stand? Of course, it cannot. The moment you remove your thumb, holding the question mark, away from it, it falls down. Needless to say that the whole body of aquestion mark cannot rest on just one end of it. Can you ever do it? Even if we allow; you to use any other thing along with this piece, can you make it stand on a fingertip? There is a trick to do it. See the question mark carefully. You will find a slot on the circular side of the question mark. Insert a leather belt which boys often wear in this slot and try to balance it on your fingertip again. Wow, it just happens! The question mark

How does it happen? We are all aware that earth's gravity acts on us and we are attracted towards the earth because of this gravitational pull. We can stand on the ground on our feet. Similarly, we can lie flat or even sit on the; ground. In all these postures, center of gravity of our body is well within the base of our body, giving it necessary stability. We may not be able to stand on single arm even if we attempt it. When we stand on one leg, we often lean on one side a little bit so that the centre of gravity passes through our standing leg. Now look at the Question Mark again. You can rest it on table comfortably on its flat surface. At the most, you may be able to keep it standing on its edge. However, it is impossible to make it stand on its one end. When we add belt to the question mark, overall scenario changes. If you look carefully, the slot in which the belt is inserted has a specific angle. As the belt is inserted, it is automatically tilted inside. Now we have to consider centre of gravity of not just the question mark, but belt and question mark together. As the belt is tilted inside, the C.G. also gets shifted inside. That means, it comes at the end of the question mark. This makes the question mark stand easily on its end. See if you can use any other object in place of a belt? What is Centre of Gravity? C.G. of a body is a fixed point through which the resultant force of gravity always passes, irrespective of the positionof the body.

10.Balancing Question

You must have noticed a question mark shape in the kit, and perhapspuzzled with the kind of toy it is. Let us play with it. The question mark has a circular head and a long tail. Just try and see if it stands on your fingertip if you keep end of the long side of question mark on your finger? Can it stand? Of course, it cannot. The moment you remove your thumb, holding the question mark, away from it, it falls down. Needless to say that the whole body of aquestion mark cannot rest on just one end of it. Can you ever do it? Even if we allow; you to use any other thing along with this piece, can you make it stand on a fingertip? There is a trick to do it. See the question mark carefully. You will find a slot on the circular side of the question mark. Insert a leather belt which boys often wear in this slot and try to balance it on your fingertip again.Wow, it just happens! The question markstands on your fingertipquite easily.

How does it happen? We are all aware that earth's gravity acts on us and we are attracted towards the earth because of this gravitational pull. We can stand on the ground on our feet. Similarly, we can lie flat or even sit on the; ground. In all these postures, center of gravity of our body is well within the base of our body, giving it necessary stability. We may not be able to stand on single arm even if we attempt it. When we stand on one leg, we often lean on one side a little bit so that the centre of gravity passes through our standing leg. Now look at the Question Mark again. You can rest it on table comfortably on its flat surface. At the most, you may be able to keep it standing on its edge. However, it is impossible to make it stand on its one end. When we add belt to the question mark, overall scenario changes. If you look carefully, the slot in which the belt is inserted has a specific angle. As the belt is inserted, it is automatically tilted inside. Now we have to consider centre of gravity of not just the question mark, but belt and question mark together. As the belt is tilted inside, the C.G. also gets shifted inside. That means, it comes at the end of the question mark. This makes the question mark stand easily on its end. See if you can use any other object in place of a belt? What is Centre of Gravity? C.G. of a body is a fixed point through which the resultant force of gravity always passes, irrespective of the positionof the body.